Nanoengineered Antibacterial Coatings Market: Introduction
- Nanoengineered antibacterial coatings help prevent initial bacterial attachment to the surface of implantable medical devices such as catheters, pacemakers, stents, and tooth implants.
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- Infections are a major concern in implantable medical devices. Infections associated with implantable medical devices are caused by bacteria and fungi. Medical devices can be contaminated by bacteria before and during the implantation procedure.
- Once bacteria gets attached to the surface, it starts to proliferate and form colonies. As time goes on, biofilms develop and form an effective protection for bacteria from antibiotics and immune system. Bacteria in biofilms can resist 1000 times higher doses of antibiotics than planktonic bacteria. This creates a challenge in the treatment of infected implantable medical devices. In such a scenario, removal and replacement of the device is the only option. However, this is expensive.
- Antibacterial coatings are not only employed in biomedical devices, but are also widely used in food and marine industries
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Types of Nanoengineered Antibacterial Coatings
- Nanoengineered antibacterial coatings are classified into four classes: repelling bacterial attachment or biofilm development, contact killing, releasing of antibacterial agents, and stimuli responsive release in the presence of bacteria
- The first class of coatings is generally those in which bacteria cannot attach to. This type of coatings is based on hydrophilic polymers such as oxazoline, polyethylene glycol, and nitroxide radicals.
- The second class of antibacterial coatings can kill bacteria upon contact. In this class, coating is done by putting quaternary ammonium compounds on surface. This helps in eradication of new bacterial entrants.
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- The first two categories of nanoengineered antibacterial coatings are efficient methods to prevent the development of bacteria on surfaces of medical devices. However, they cannot eliminate bacteria that has already affected the site of implantation.
- This disadvantage of first two coatings can make open wounds more susceptible to pathogens. The third category of nanoengineered antibacterial coatings was developed to neutralize such pathogens. Conventional antibiotics, peptides, and nitric oxides are common antibacterial agents that are released to diminish bacterial formation on medical devices.
- The fourth and the final category of nanoengineered antibacterial coatings consists of antibacterial agents, which release on demand or when bacteria have already infiltrated or contaminate the device. These stimuli responsive materials possess more advantages as compared to other classes of antibacterial coatings.
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Key Drivers of Nanoengineered Antibacterial Coatings Market
- Implantable medical devices are largely used in geriatric population with reduced immune system. This class of population is more susceptible to infections caused by infiltrated bacteria. Japan, Italy, Portugal, and Germany have the highest numbers of the oldest adults globally. According to a World Health Organization (WHO) report, almost 2 billion people around the world are estimated to be more than 60 year old by 2050, three times the number it was in 2000. The U.K. and France face an increase in their health care budget and usage of implantable medical devices owing to increase in geriatric population. This is estimated to augment the nanoengineered antibacterial coatings market in these countries.
- In 2018, the Government of India launched a scheme named Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (also known as Ayushman Bharat Yojana). This scheme provides health insurance of Rs.5 lakh per family per year for secondary and tertiary hospitalization care. The scheme helps provide medical implant services. In 2017, the U.S. spent around US$ 3.5 Trn or 18% of its GDP on health care, almost more than twice of average of expenditure of other developed countries. Of these US$ 3.5 Trn, US$ 1.5 Trn was directly or indirectly funded by the U.S. government. The government allocated resources of almost 8% of economy toward the health care sector. As per a report published by the Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget, this cost is estimated to rise to US$ 2.9 Trn or 9.7% of the economy. Thus, strategies developed by the U.S. and India are estimated to propel the demand for subsidized implantable medical devices, thus helping boost the sales of nanoengineered antibacterial coatings market in these countries.
Key Manufacturers Operating in Nanoengineered Antibacterial Coatings Market
Key manufacturers operating in the global nanoengineered antibacterial coatings market include:
- AkzoNobel N.V.
- BASF SE
- Diamond Vogel
- Axalta Coating Systems
- Nippon Paint Company Ltd
- PPG Industries Inc.
- Royal DSM
- RPM International Inc.
- The Dow Chemical Company
- The Sherwin-Williams Company